Economists can say little about population and its size, despite the gloomy views of Malthus. More people are a good thing because of the division of labor. Living standards are higher when populations are higher.
Economics begins with the concepts of scarcity and choice. If there was no scarcity it would all be free. Resources like time and materials need to be allocated to economically feasible uses. This will depend on the consumers' demand for the final product.
In order for anyone to make ethical judgments, he must know the consequences of his various actions. In questions of union actions displacement or unemployment for oneself or others will be considered unfortunate by most people.
The time market determines the pure rate of interest. Price per unit of time may be wages or rent. The interest income will be earned by the capitalist who has assumed the task of advancing present money.
Business men must make sure they can cover their costs by incoming revenue. The production function will yield a certain quantity of a product. The firm considers marginal costs and average costs to weigh where along the demand curve production is.
The only cartels that have lasted have been government cartels. There is no essential difference between a cartel and an ordinary corporation or partnership. Not even the De Beers cartel is all powerful.